Possible technological solutions for the production of vaccines against COVID-2019 - Sysbiotech buttons
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Possible technological solutions for the production of vaccines against COVID-2019

COVID-2019 vaccine manufacturing chain

SYSBIOTECH has been cooperating with leading vaccine manufacturers in different countries for many years and is ready to discuss and develop new solutions, including equipment for the vaccine against COVID-2019.
Many modern vaccines, including rabies and rotavirus vaccines, are produced on cell cultures in bioreactors.
The following process chain is typical for this method of vaccine production (Fig. 1):

Figure 1. Typical cell culture-based vaccine production chain.

Let us describe in more detail how each type of equipment is used.

  1. Reactors of various volumes are needed for the preparation of buffer solutions, as well as culture media (if ready-made media are not purchased).
  2. Bioreactors are used to cultivate cells in which the virus will propagate. Different cell lines can be used, and each one has its own cultivation parameters.
  3. After inactivation of the virus, the process of its concentration and purification begins. This requires filtration skids, ultracentrifuges, separators. The equipment is selected with regards to the chosen technology of vaccine production.
  4. The final stage of vaccine production is formulation. The vaccine can be produced both in liquid and in dry form (lyophilisate). Reactors and auxiliary sterile vessels are also used at this stage, and freeze-dryers are used to dry the vaccine.


If you have any questions about vaccine equipment, do not hesitate to ask us:

Let’s tell more about SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates:

The genetic sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus causing the COVID-19 disease was published on January 11, 2020, which triggered intensive global research efforts to develop a vaccine against this disease. The magnitude of the humanitarian and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic stimulates the development of various vaccine manufacturing technologies, and the first candidate for the COVID-19 vaccine entered clinical trials in humans at unprecedented speed on March 16, 2020.

The vaccine development landscape database includes vaccine development programs presented on WHO’s reputable and constantly updated list, as well as other projects from public and private sources.

The landscape provides an overview of the key characteristics of the research and development of COVID-19 vaccines.

COVID-19 vaccine R&D landscape

COVID-19 vaccines
Fig. 2. R&D landscape for the development of vaccine against COVID-19. Exploratory projects (divided into confirmed and unconfirmed) are at an early stage of planning without in vivo testing, and preclinical studies are at the stage of in-vivo testing and/or production of material for clinical trials.

As of April 8, 2020, the global COVID-19 vaccine research and development landscape includes 115 candidates (Figure 2), of which 78 are confirmed as active and 37 are not. Of the 78 confirmed active projects, 73 are currently at the research or preclinical stage. The most advanced candidates have recently gone into clinical development, including Moderna mRNA-1273, CanSino Biologicals Ad5-nCoV, Inovio INO-4800, LV-SMENP-DC and pathogen-specific artificial antigen-presenting cells from the Shenzhen Genoimmune Medical Institute (Table 1). Many other vaccine developers have announced plans to begin testing in humans in 2020.

Table 1. Candidates for the role of the vaccine against COVID-19 in the phase of clinical trials

Candidate Characteristics Leading manufacturer Status
mRNA-1273 mRNA vaccine encoding protein S encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles Moderna Phase I (NCT04283461)
Ad5-nCoV Type-5 adenovirus vector that expresses protein S CanSino Biologicals Phase I (NCT04313127)
INO-4800 DNA-plasmid encoding protein S; delivered by electroporation Inovio Phase I (NCT04336410)
LV-SMENP-DC Dendritic cells modified with a lentiviral vector expressing a synthetic minigen based on selected viral proteins domains; introduced into the body with antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes Shenzhen Genoimmune Medical Institute Phase I (NCT04276896)
Pathogen-specific artificial antigen-presenting cells Artificial antigen-presenting cells modified with a lentiviral vector expressing a synthetic minigen based on the domains of selected viral proteins Shenzhen Genoimmune Medical Institute Phase I (NCT04299724)

Vaccine Developers Profile

Of the confirmed active candidates for vaccines, 56 (72%) are developed by private developers, and the remaining 22 (28%) of project—č are carried out by academic, state and other non-profit organizations (Fig. 3). While a number of large multinational vaccine developers (such as Janssen, Sanofi, Pfizer, and GlaxoSmithKline) have been involved in the development of the COVID-19 vaccine, many of the leading developers are small and/or inexperienced in large-scale vaccine production. Thus, it will be important to coordinate the production and supply of the vaccine to meet the demand.

Much of the development of the COVID-19 vaccine is being done in North America: 36 (46%) of the developers of confirmed active candidate vaccines are located there. Compare with other regions: 14 (18%) in China, 14 (18%) in Asia (excluding China) and Australia, and 14 (18%) in Europe (Fig. 3).

COVID-19 vaccine developers across the world
Figure 3. Profile of COVID-19 vaccine developers by type and geographical location. For partnerships, the location of the lead developer is indicated.
Vaccine1 16 Apr 2020